1.2 Effeccts of Urbanization

As cities grow and more land is developed both within urban areas and their surroundings, land is cleared and impervious surfaces such as roads, parking lots, rooftops, and sidewalks are added. Roads are cut through slopes and low spots are filled.

The natural soil structure is changed due to grading and compaction during construction. Consequently, drainage patterns are impacted. Maintained landscapes having much higher runoff characteristics often replace the natural vegetation.

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